Psychological Effect on Marketing and Advertising Management for Corporate Industry

An important tenet of Gestalt psychology is that there is a cognitive drive to obtain a good Gestalt or configuration, one that is simple , familiar, regular , meaningful, consistent, and complete. The human mind is not above making minor or even major distortions of the stimuli to accomplish this purpose. The following principles are related to this cognitive drive.
Closure. If we see a symbol that would be a square except that a small segment of one side is missing, our minds will fill in this gap and a square will be perceived. This process is called closure. In the Asch experiment, in which rather strong perception in individuals were obtained from a short list of attributes, closure was occurring. A detailed picture of an individual emerged from a sketchy list of cues.
An advertiser can use the closure process to make a campaign more efficient. A 60_ second commercial can, for example, be run several times so that the content has been learned by a worthwhile percentage of the target audience. To combat forgetting, a shorter spot __maybe only 5 or 10 second long __ could be used. Or a radio campaign could be used to supplement a television campaign. Research by Edell and Keller has shown that a viewer of the short TV spot or a listener of the radio spot, will tend to visualize the omitted material .49 Thus , the material contained in the 60- second commercial will have been transmitted in a much shorter time. Fuathermore, the risk of boring the viewer with repeated showing is reduced. Another use of the closure concept is leaving a well- known jingle uncompleted. Those exposed will have astrong cognitive drive to effect closure by mentally completing the jingle . For example, Salem cigarettes mounted campaigns in which they presented “you can take Salme out of the country but you can’t… ,, The audience then had to provide the familiar ending “take the country out of Salem ,, The Hathaway shirt advertisement showing the man in a dress shirt and eye patch ran without any mention of Hathaway. Again the audience was expected via the closure process to insert the manufacturer,s name. The ad for J&B scotch whisky in Fihure 11-3 invites the reader to use closure to fill in the brand ,s initials. Activating the closure process in this manner can get the reader involed, even to the extent of stimulating effort on his or her part . Such involvement often enhances learning . Research by Cards and others has shown that forcing consumers to make their own inferences from an ad which rather than the ad itself drawing that conclusion explicitly.

New Management Mantras :Function of Objectives in Advertising and Marketing Organization to Individual

Objective serve several function in modern management . one function is to opterats as communication and coordination devices . They provide a vehicle  by which the client, the agency account executive . and the creative team communicate . They also serve to coor-dinate the efforts of such groups  as copywriters . radio specialists, media buyers, and  re-search specialists .
A second function of  objectives is to provide a criterion fot decision making. If two alternative campaigns are generate, one must be selected . Rather than relying on an executive’ esthetic judgment (or on that of his or her spouse ), he or she should be able to turn to the objective and select the criterion that will most  readly  achieve it.One test of the operationnality of an objective is the degree to which it can act as a decision criterion.
A related function of an objective is to evaluate result s. Thus anotherbtest of objective operationality is whether it can be used to evaluate campaign at its conclusion . This function impliesthat there needs to be a measure such as market share or brand awareness  associated  with the objective . At the end of the camoaign ,that preselected  measure  is employed to evaluate  the success of the campaign __ such success is increasingly how advertising agencies are getting  compensated , as was pointed  out in Chapter.
Sales as an Objective:-
Advertising objective , like organizational objective , should be operational. They should be effective criteria for decision making  and should provide standards with  which result can be compared. Furthermore, they should be effective communicational tool, providing a line between strategic and tactical decision.
A convened and enticing advertising objective  involves  a construct like immediate sales  or market share . The ultimate  aim of adversting  is often   to help raise the level  of some aggregate  measure like immediaed sales . The measure is usually readily available  to” evaluate”   the results of a  campaign . There are clearly  some  situations __ mail order  advertising  and some retail advertsing,  for example __ when immediate sales are good operational objective , and others in which they can  play a role in guiding the advertising campaign. Chapter 10 will discuss in more detail  such situations in which sales or market  share make useful objectives.
Howerver, objectives that involve an increase in immediate sales are not operational in many cases for two reasons: (1) advertising is only one of many factors influencing sales, and it is difficult to isolate its contribution to those sales, and (2) the contributory role of advertising often  occurs primarily  over the long run . Advertising is only one of the many forces that influence sales, as Fingerer 3-1 illustrates. The other forces include price, distribution, packaging, product features, com putative actions, and changing buyer needs and tastes .It is extremely difficult to isolate the effect of advertising. Some argue that evaluating advertising only by its impact on sales is like attributing all the success (or failure) of a football team to the quarterback. The fact is that many other elements can effect the team‘s record __ other plays, the competition, and the bounce of the ball. The implication is that effect of the quarterback. Performance should be measured by the things he alone can influence,    such as how he throws the ball , how he calls the plays , and how he hands off,.If in a real manner of marketing and management mantra. 

Most Recent Marketing mantra :Recall attitude of the Attitude Toward an Advertisement

A positive attitude toward an advertisement, in addition to creating higher levels of attitude to the brand , can also affect advertising impact in a variety of other ways, such as improving the recall of the advertised material. 19 Remember from Chapter 5 that recall and attitudes are different goals, achieved through different information processing mechanisms. A well – like dad, not surprisingly , is also remembered longer (though some standard recall copy tests actually show felling ads doing poorer on recall measure than they should, a point discussed latter in our copy testing chapter) . Interestingly , there is an argument that even disliked commercials can be effective in terms of recall and that, in fact, it is much better to be dislike than to be ignored. That is, both liked and disliked ads are supposed to be better on recall than are neural ads.
There is no shortage of anecdotal evidence  that irritating commercials have been effective. The classic example is the strong Rosser Reeves campaigns of past decades featuring his Unique Selling Propositions for Anacin, in which a hummer hitting a head was shown again and again and again. There are two explanations as to why a disliked ad can be effective in leading to brand preference via creating high recall.  20 First, in some contexts, attention to the ad , and processing of the information in it , could be increased without the negative felling reaction being transferred to the product. Second , brand familiarity is created which, particularly for low- involvement  products that are bought on the basis of awareness rather than attitudes,  may lead to increased brand choice. This is most likely to be effective if. Over time , the negative ad becomes disassociated from the business world.There i can say it that any marketing of product must relatively with great attitude which can bring another attitude to the sponsor. 


Organizational Behavior Management. This course is designed to provide the most up-to-date coverage of the Organizational Behavior field. This course will allow students to encompass the complete field of organizational behavior by integrating topic coverage, theory and practice, company examples and a pedagogical focus. The course begins with a review of the field of organizational behavior and focuses on ways to apply the scientific method to practical managerial problems. This information revolves around the three levels of analysis, which are individuals, groups and organizations. The course presents specific reference to the human relations movement including classical organizational theory and organization behavior behavior in the modern era. Theories of learning are paralleled with actual practices. Systematic discussion of actual organizational practices illustrates how crucial the practice of organizational behavior is today. Examples and theories are presented on companies as diverse as entrepreneurial ventures to monoliths like General Motors and Exxon. In addition, information is presented with respect to the new forms of business that are emerging rapidly due to technological advances. 
Individual differences within organizations are reviewed, including the effects this makes on organizational behavior. A wealth of information is presented on motivation in organizations, work-related attitudes, career management and stress. Special attention is given to the affects of group dynamics and effective team performance. The organization as a whole is presented in several different aspects. This course review communications in organizations as the foundation and lays the groundwork for decision making. Information is presented on pro social and deviant behavior in organizations.Awareness of the international nature of organization is presented throughout the course. The global nature of today’s business is also defined.Thus in present challenging world every thing of corporate world in competition either brand value of bussiness era.